Questions on Gilligan



1.  Who is Carol Gilligan? 

2.  What is feminism?  Write down your own definition.  See

3.  Suggestion for group leadership:  Do a focused listing to help your classmates get hold of the essay's main points.

        a.  Writing exercise (5 minutes):  What points does Gilligan make about males?  What points does she make about


        b.  Group exercise:  Divide into groups and summarize Gilligan's main points about gender difference.

        c.  What is her point about psychological literature?  What does she criticize?  See the sentence that spans the columns

             on page 90.  What does she propose?

4.  Key passages to discuss:

        a.  Page 86, col. 1, full par. 2, re. Freud, superego, etc.  How is Freud the villain of this text?

        b.  Page 86, cols. 1 and 2, re. Freud's differences from Chodorow.  How does Chodorow try to correct Freud?

        c.  Page 87, col. 1, middle par., re. relationships.

        d.  Page 89, col. 2, top par., last two sentences; and middle par, first sentence ("Yet despite..."), re. the difference between males and females.

        e.  Page 89, col. 2, par. 3:  Male is to "the world" as female is to "a relationship of intimacy."  Discuss.

        f.  Father is to giant as mother is to _______________.  (For the word "giant," see pages 85 and 90.)

        g.  Page 91:  Regarding games, boys are to rules as girls are to relationships. 

5.  According to Gilligan, do women view morality differently than men do?  If so, how?  See especially pages 92-93.

     See also page 95, col. 1, full par. 2, "The psychology of women...."

6.  Do we repeat Freud's error of considering difference to be equivalent to deficiency when we think about women?

7.  What does morality mean to you?

8.  You see the connection to McIntosh, right?  Whites:blacks::men:women.


Erik Erikson's stages of psychological development from

  1. Stage One Oral-Sensory: from birth to one, trust vs. mistrust, feeding;
  2. Stage Two Muscular-Anal: 1-3 years, autonomy vs. doubt, toilet training;
  3. Stage Three Locomotor: 3-6 years, initiative vs. inadequacy, independence;
  4. Stage Four Latency: 6-12 years, industry vs. inferiority, school;
  5. Stage Five Adolescence: 12-18 years, identity vs. confusion, peer relationships;
  6. Stage Six Young Adulthood: 18-40 years, intimacy vs. isolation, love relationships;
  7. Stage Seven Middle Adulthood: 40-65 years, generativity vs. stagnation, parenting;
  8. Stage Eight Maturity: 65 years until death, integrity vs. despair, acceptance of one's life.

See also