1. Talk about first test: 10 points.
    1. Part One:  Identification and analysis (45 minutes):  5 passages.
    2. Part Two:  Synthesis (30 minutes):  1 essay.
    3. Bring:  Bluebooks, blue or black pens; write neatly, use margins.
    4. Exercise:  Practice for part one:  Jaques's 7 ages speech on 305, 2.7.135-65.

                                                               i.      Show video clip.

                                                             ii.      Write for 7 minutes.

                                                            iii.      Discussion:  What did you come up with

1.      7 ages

2.      Passage of time (chronos).  Cf. song at 5.3.15.

3.      Tension:  Standard for a good life vs. negatives in the passage (cf. J's cynicism).  Oliver and Frederick illustrate some of this negativity.

4.      J is not completely correct about old men—see 300, 2.3.47.

5.      Theater metaphor.

6.      Imagery of mutability in Amiens's song, which is a good summary of the two worlds—human evil vs. surd evil.

7.      Re. lovers, what does the 7 ages speech have in common with the rest of the play?

                                                           iv.      State that students don't have to have all of these things in their answers, but they do need to do the following:

1.      Identify the passage by speaker and play title.

2.      Analyze some of its contents (this is the major part of the task).

3.      And make a brief connection between the passage and something else in the play:  a thematic or imagistic link.


  1. Orlando slays the lion on 318-19, 4.3.98-133:
    1. Why the snake and the lion?  WIC?

                                                               i.      They may represent Orlando's twin challenges—inappropriate eroticism (the snake) and the maternal (the lion).  This point comes from Louis Adrian Montrose, "'The Place of a Brother' In As You Like It:  Social Process and Comic Form," SQ 32 (1981), 50.

                                                             ii.      He runs the risk of being inappropriately erotic and of allowing Rosalind to rule him as would a mother.

                                                            iii.      Cf. "Young Goodman Brown":  "after this one night I'll cling to her skirts and follow her to heaven."  Cf. Circe:  "a weakling unmanned."  Or the wife of bath who rides men until they give her the sovereignty in the relationship.

                                                           iv.      IOW, inversion of the proper power dynamic:  men > women.

                                                             v.      See the epilogue:  "simpering men."

                                                           vi.      This reading is strengthened b/c Rosalind is associated with the same two images:

                                          1.      Snake image.  See the chain she gives Orlando at 296, 1.2.235 & 308, 3.2.178. 

2.      Rosalind and the lioness are linked at 320, 5.2.19-23:  wounds.

POINT:  But Orlando overcomes both temptations.


  1. Other points:
    1. The characters avoid the fate of P&T or R&J:  see the bloody handkerchief on 318, 4.3.98.
    2. A triumph of fraternal "kindness" (319, 4.3.129) over fratricide.


  1. Do you buy Oliver's conversion?  Is it believable?  Is Frederick's?  See 324, 5.4.150ff.


  1. Group exercise re. essay question:  In groups of 5 do the following:
    1. First, for each play we have studied, list as many themes as you can.
    2. Second, write these themes on the board.
    3. Third, identify one theme that runs throughout all three plays and write a question about it.  The question should take the following form:

                                                               i.      We have seen x theme/concept in all the plays of our comedy unit. 

                                                             ii.      In general terms sketch the parameters of the issue itself.

                                                            iii.      Identify three characters who exemplify the theme and one who does not.  All three plays should be represented.

                                                           iv.      Argue in favor of the three and against the one.