CRTW 201

Dr. Fike 

 

DAY FOUR

YOU MUST HAVE TOMPKINS'S ARTICLE WITH YOU TODAY. IF NOT, GO GET A COPY AT THE COMPUTER CENTER IN OWENS.

 

Announcements:

 

 

STEP FOUR: Strand of FBIs

Get into your four groups and share the FBIs you identified in Tompkins's article. What words and phrases are her terminology for filters, barriers, and impediments? Pick up where we left off: share what you discovered on your assigned pages.

  1. 718-21:

  2. 722-25:

  3. 726-29:

  4. 730-end:

See Tompkins Note.

 

 

Another Strand: Context (a first element)

Nosich 48-49: "Context is the background to the reasoning rather than being literally an element in it, and alternatives encompass the different choices that could be made in the reasoning." So when we talk about the 8+ elements, we mean the 8 in the circle + context and alternatives. For context, see also Nosich 62-63.

Synonyms for context in Tompkins's article (a strand):

 

 

STEP FIVE: Charting information can be extremely helpful.

Point: Context colors the point of view, which in turn colors the conclusion. Context gives rise to point of view. Point of view gives rise to conclusions.

Context/Historical Period

Point of View

Conclusion/Interpretation

1950s: before civil rights movement

 

Miller: colonial point of view

Indians: beneath notice

1960s: social, cultural, political upheaval

Vaughan: sensitive to race and ethnicity

Puritans (dominant culture) > Indians (inferior culture)

 

1970s & 1980s: aftermath of Vietnam war

Jennings:  racial and ethnic

 

Martin: ethnographic; he looks at Indians' spirituality/cosmology    

 

Hudson: economic  

 

Kupperman: ethnographic; she looks at Englishmen     

 

Note: All four historians have Eurocentric assumptions.

Indians > Puritans; whites preyed on Indians

Indians perceived broken contract between themselves and animals.

 

Indians had economic motives.

 

Indians valued social class, rank, prestige--same as Englishmen.

Colonial period James Axtell: positive point of view


Norman Heard: negative point of view



Rowlandson: white woman captured by Indians; Puritan point of view



Wood: person who hopes to encourage immigration


Whitaker: a minister who wants to foster conversion
Indians are good neighbors.



Indians are kidnappers and subject to the vice of smoking.


Captivity = God's punishment; Divine Providence is at work.



Indians are civilized--c'mon over and live as their neighbors.

Indians are of the devil and need conversion--c'mon over and help set them straight.

 

 

 

STEP SIX: If you can nail the concepts, you have a good chance of understanding the article.

Concepts:

  1. imagination, 718

  2. structuralism and poststructuralism, 719

  3. antifoundationalist epistemology, 720

  4. relativism, 730

  5. epistemological quandary, 720

  6. epistemological indeterminacy, 732

  7. emptying and disappearing (kenosis), 733

POINT: Subjectivity (1) leads to theory (2-4), which leads to problems (5-6), which causes facts to disappear (7).

 

STEP SEVEN: Drawing a diagram can be extremely helpful. Do this in your notebook.

Put the following in the right order and then DRAW the text:

Where is bias present?

What is Tompkins's FBI?

 

Another Way To Draw the Text

Put the following in order and draw the relationships among them: draw the elements. Do this in your notebook.

At which point are FBIs present? Where are they most influential?

Does your order reflect Tompkins's organization or your analysis of it?

N 49: " . . . there is no required order. The order in which it is most beneficial to apply them [the elements] depends on the question being addressed."

N 75: "Context, purpose, and question at issue are often good places to start. So is point of view. . . ."

 

 

STEP EIGHT: TOMPKINS AND SEE-I

SEE-I and paragraph structure on page 724:

 

SEE-I provides a way to unpack a concept and to develop a paragraph or even a paper.

 

 

Key sentence on page 733: "Reasons must be given, evidence adduced, authorities cited, analogies drawn." These four things correspond to the four parts of the SEE-I.

 

 

STEP NINE:  SUMMING UP TOMPKINS BY THE ELEMENTS

Note: In order for the elements to be useful to you, you have to learn to use them concisely. A common mistake in CRTW papers is to devote a whole par. to each element. Do each element in 1-2 sentences. The following list is an example of how to distill a long, complicated text down to simple ideas.

Tompkins engages with the following elements:

Context influences all of these, and alternative contexts can produce alternative versions of the elements (the same goes for point of view). Note that alternatives do not stand alone; they are within the other 9 elements.

New Q @ I: "What should I do about Native Americans' problems today?" Sadly, she leaves this question unanswered.

 

 

Final Exercise on Tompkins

Exercise on the elements: page 730 (par. starts "It may well seem"). What elements do you find here?