3a. Re: Standard Score Vs Age Equivalent Posted by: "Guy McBride" firstname.lastname@example.org guymc_2000 Date: Thu Apr 7, 2011 6:03 am ((PDT))
You might also want to consider that we are not the parents' only source of information regarding the interpretation of test scores. Peter Wright maintains a document, which I understand is being revised, at: http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/tests_measurements.html I generally do not recommend giving it out to parents because I think it is misleading. They describe falling standard scores over time as "regression." They might, but more often than not an item analysis shows that the child has continued to progress, albeit at a slower rate. A more accurate description of that phenomenon would be "plateauing." Still it is prudent to be aware of what parent attorneys are saying about g.e.'s.
Both parent and school attorneys are generally agreed that reporting scores based on percentile scores and standard scores provides the most accurate representation of a child's performance in comparison to his or her peers. As some have suggested, providing a graphic illustration is also sometimes helpful.
Ron Dumont and John Willis provide sample reports on their website from which information can be cut and pasted. I used their graphics for awhile, but then I scanned and pasted a graphic from one of the test publishers into my reports. However, their descriptions don't as I recall even mention g.e..'s. As I recall, Jerry Sattler also addresses the issue in his book on Assessment. Which brings me to another point . . . if you just say no to grade equivalents (that is, don't even report them in your report), then topic is unlikely to come up very often in your discussions.
It is not just within the context of spedlaw that grade equivalents are potentially problematic. The International Dyslexia Association has warned about the possible misuse of g.e.'s since 1982. Also see Ron Dumont's and John Willis's piece at: http://alpha.fdu.edu/psychology/oat_cereal.htm (Note: be careful to note the distinction between grade equivalents and grade norms.)
Their advice about avoiding g.e.'s because of possible misinterpretation has been repeated by a number of associations and for a variety of populations, including adult learners.
*Grade- and Age- Equivalent Scores- *estimates that are used to describe a student‚s score in terms of a grade or age level in which the student is functioning. These scores are often misinterpreted. For example, if a 4 th grade student receives a grade equivalent score of 8.1 on the reading<http://www.education.com/topic/study-help-language/?__module=DeepLink&hit&id=1233>portion of a grade-level achievement test, this does not mean the students is reading at the 8 th grade level. It means that this student reads 4 th grade material as well as the average 8 th grader would read it.
if a student obtains an age-equivalent score of 8.0 years on a test of basic reading skills, this means the student obtained the same raw score as the average 8-year-old student in the test's norm group. It does not mean the student acquired or demonstrated the same level of proficiency consistent with curricular expectations as the average 8-year-old student in the student's school. Consequently, grade and age-equivalent scores should not be interpreted literally. It is critical that test administrators and consumers understand the meaning and interpretation of these and other derived scores, as misinterpretation can lead to serious consequences for the examinee, including possible misdiagnosis, misclas-sification, and/or inappropriate educational placement<http://www.education.com/definition/placement/?__module=DeepLink&hit&id=6480>and services. Sattler and Lyman provide further, extensive information about these and other derived scores used for testing interpretive purposes.
Dr. Samuel Ortiz: ELL, CHC matrix, cross-battery assessment
Video Tutorial: Do Large Subtest Score Differences Invalidate Composite Scores
New Video Tutorial: Do Large Subtest Score Differences Invalidate Co Posted by: “Joel Schneider” email@example.com wjs3220 Date: Thu Jul 14, 2011 11:44 pm ((PDT)) I have posted a video in which I explore the issue of whether composite scores should be ignored when the subtests that contribute to the composite differ substantially (Short answer: Not very often). The detailed answer (with fancy rotating 3D images!) is here: http://wp.me/p177GY-2N
This is a follow-up video to the one I posted last week. It discusses what makes subtest scores within a composite score different. It can be found here: http://wp.me/p177GY-2z
Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports has been established by the Office of Special Education Programs, US Department of Education to give schools capacity-building information and technical assistance for identifying, adapting, and sustaining effective school-wide disciplinary practices
The Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis is a behavioral treatment program for children with autism. The Lovaas Model utilizes a variety of evidence-based practices, including reinforcing appropriate behaviors, task analysis, shaping and chaining, discrete trial teaching, incidental teaching, functional behavior assessment, and peer integration. The program is both intensive and comprehensive. Research indicates up to 40 hours of therapy per week is beneficial. Skills are taught across all developmental domains-- from communication, speech and language, to academics, self-help, and play. Parent training and involvement is critical to the program's success. The initial years of treatment are often devoted to one-on-one instruction in the home (i.e., a young child's primary learning environment) with generalization of skills throughout the day by parents. As children demonstrate school readiness skills, treatment involves the integration of the child into the school environment. The Lovaas Model treatment manual and other resources are available for purchase or download at the Lovaas Institute website.
Research Autism: a British site with an excellent review of the evidence base for various treatments
Educating Slow Learners: Are Charter Schools the Last, Best Hope. Steve Shaw. This is an an article about slow learners and the Nevin Center, a charter school in Greenville, SC. http://www.ehhs.cmich.edu/~dnewby/shaw4.pdf
The Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence at the George Washington University http://www.hamfish.org/
Mindfulness, Acceptance & Commitment Therapy
Orsillo and Roemer have a popular book, The Mindful Way through Anxiety, and a professional book, Mindfulness & Acceptance-Based Behavioral Therapies in Practice. They have received excellent reviews. The authors have a website with resources for anxiety and downloadable audio exercises for mindfulness, relaxation, etc. The link is: www.mindfulwaythroughanxiety.com
Dr. Russell Barkley video on ADHD
This is highly recommended. Dr. Barkley is one of the leading researchers on ADHD
Headsprout Early Reading is an effective evidence-based online K-2 supplemental program that "ensures reading success for every child, guaranteed." The program takes a non-reader or beginning reader up to mid-2nd-Grade reading skills in less than 30 hours of individualized online instruction. Eighty printed stories (including Chapter Books) and automated performance reports accompany the program. Parents can purchase Early Reading for $198 and Reading Comprehension for $99.
Briefly, the system continually tests student knowledge of early reading skills, provides more instruction, practice and feedback as necessary and moves the student on when they've mastered prerequisite skills.
Reading Rockets is a USDOE project to disseminate evidence-based information about reading. Highly recommended.
HELPS program for reading fluency. Highly recommended
This is an evidence based fluency program. All materials and progress monitoring materials can be downloaded free. Has videos of implementation The Helping Early Literacy with Practice Strategies (HELPS) Programs integrate easy-to-use instructional strategies that are specifically designed to improve students reading fluency. Teachers are encouraged to implement one 10-12 minute HELPS session 2-3 days per week.
This page was developed and is maintained by Dr. Leigh Armistead, Associate Professor, Winthrop University School Psychology Program. To report problems with links or to suggest additional resources, send email to: firstname.lastname@example.org